Personality and Leadership 0 21

Personality and Leadership 0 22

Early work


This type of questioning refers to early research in social psychology on the subject of leadership. Indeed, many studies have been identified, including RM Stogdill.

Between 1904 and 1948, hundreds of comparative studies between leaders and no-leaders were made: the comparisons were made at the physical characteristics, personality traits and skills. The objective is to be able to build measurement tools for selecting effective leaders. Stodgill then identified certain recurrent stereotypical traits such as the size of the leader (a good leader must be big and strong).
However, these studies have not led to satisfactory results.

Skills and situations
 
Twelve years later, Lod, From Life annuity and Allider have nevertheless identified three essential skills: masculinity, intelligence and dominance.
The leading position in its organization depends on the relationship between management style and variabilities of each situation (the skill level of his subordinates for example).
Moreover, it is the social representation that the subordinates of their leader that makes him what he is. Moreover, the situation often determines the necessary skills.
Leadership, authority and power

Very little in common could therefore be identified. On the one hand, history provides us with proof  Hitler and Napoleon were men of small size, for example.
Sex is not a factor: Aung San Suu Kyi in Burma or German Chancellor Angela Merkel show us good.
Furthermore, the results were very heterogeneous and sometimes even contradicted.
Finally, some studies did not differentiate between the leader and the leader. It must indeed differentiate the term leadership to that authority and that of power. While leadership refers to the notion of influence, power, it is used about the command while the authority refers the management. But do not forget that there is an interaction between these three terms.
primordial characteristics
 
Now, further research could determine a few contingencies. Indeed, at first,three qualities are often identified as essential for the leader of a team:
  • courage: take control of a team or an entire organizational system,  even triggering lightning members of the group or even losing the  esteem of   his superiors demand composure;
  • emotional maturity: being in the ability to move forward, to always grow,  even in anxiety-provoking situations and to learn from experience and from mistakes;
  • personal values: referring to, the leader can evaluate the behavior of   its employees to detect  and therefore to anticipate prejudicial attitudes.
  The best leaders regularly  have this type of   quality. Secondly, Claude Lévy-Leboyer has developed a range of individual characteristics oftenrequired in a good leader. It is based on the model of the  Big Five to highlight some important points: extroversion, dominance, emotional stability, self-confidence and empathy. Generally, the studies allow us to see that effective leaders are also intelligent, masculine, conservative and balanced. Bass (1990) adds that they are active subjects
 (energetic) qualified both technically (intuitive, spontaneous) and social (good communication, manage conflict, etc.). But recent studies have preferred to abandon personality traits to study the behavior of leaders situation.
Innate or acquired
 
In conclusion, a number of character traits – individual qualities – are fundamental to the functioning of leadership. But these traits are not innate, contrary to conventional wisdom. They are dependent onn the experience of the person, and can grow progressively and to-measure. Moreover, these qualities differ in different situations and types of task. According to Bass,”some people will never be  leaders, others will do that in some situations,others always will be, and regardless of the situation.”
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Self-confidence is the key to happiness 45 136

          Self-confidence is not a gift from heaven, we are craftsmen. Similarly, we built a temporary or chronic lack of confidence following an unfortunate event or untoward behavior on the part of others. 

In all cases, it is not inevitable, then take our trowels and hammers: Martine Teillac, psychoanalyst, gives us 3 keys to build self-confidence:
 

Set self-confidence

According Direct 8, 75% of people lack confidence.  Who has never felt uncomfortable facing a given situation, often without daring to say and whose professional projects found themselves  hampered? deficit, even minor, self-confidence can transform certain actions to be undertaken
 in energy-consuming tests: talk about yourself in a job interview, convince a potential partner, 
pick up the phone, build or interact with its network etc…
And there is no universally difficult actions to take or not: the uncomfortable feeling will lodge where the lack of confidence is expressed, which varies according to the people. So needless to say, 
“There is nothing to fear” to an anxious person to the idea of passing a job interview because the reason has nothing to do with it.
 
   In  thesetimes orstandard dictates tobe outgoingand dynamic, it combines a little too quickly the
 lack of self-confidence with shyness.

No need to be an introvert shy back carp release stashed under  rocks to insecure in certain 
circumstances.
Because  confidence is the idea that we have of our ability to cope with a given situation. 
So, it is obviously impossible to feel sure (e) self permanently, because we do not  have all the skills necessary to cope with everything.
However, well known and recognized our capabilities allows you to feel more serene face the vagaries of our professional lives.
The consequences of lack of insurance
The discomfort that results from lack of confidence can generate a good penalizing  relational awkwardness:
  • Hesitant behavior, begging, victimization
  • Devaluation of skills
  •  Convers Ely: over estimation, arrogance etc…
In short, lack of self-confidence can lead straight to failure strategies and procrastination.
Rebuilding self-confidence
The lack of insurance or self-confidence is not inevitable:
Self-confidence is built, is shaped and maintained through technical and practical action. Martine Teillac, psychoanalyst and  psychotherapist, in an interview for Direct 8 says that construction  work is based on three aspects: 

1.  the inner speech

 
 
 
        Let exacerbate our faults and forget our qualities. “The internal dialogue (…)will condition our behavior, explains Martine Teillac.
 It can be very simple sentences, for example, I meet  my neighbor who does not say hello to me and I said “damn I suck (it).” I would have thought ” my neighbor has concerns, she did not head to that”
 and I do not put myself in question. “In other words, in our inner speech repents all that is of the order of the devaluation, the misinterpretation that disparages us and replace those thoughts with 
a more objective speech (not positive), so avoid a crippling devaluation and promote a look at itself more caring and motivating..
  .

  2. building its own scale of values: detach from the past

 

   “When we had parents who always put his finger on what was wrong, we will tend to do the same. So put the past in its place, reconsider criticism from parents, orders and build our own system of values, our own personal level, “advises the analyst.
Education and those who are responsible have transmitted wagons limiting beliefs that maintain a look and a negative mindset about ourselves. Give them their beliefs and build belief systems of our
 own, which are what we think and what we believe helps.

  3.  passage to action accompanied by talent assessment implemented

 
The transition to action, even do it in small steps rather than jumping into the deep end of  a sudden is the prerequisite of strengthening confidence because it brings us evidence of our ability every  challenge statement.
Martine Teillac offers self-evaluate, on a scale of 1 to 10, our confidence in specific situations.
 “It’s a safe bet that you’ll rarely zero point of your ability, your expertise or skills“.
 Realizing this, “you’re going to build on the fact that the estimate you were doing yourself  was perhaps not so amazingly severe and in line with the reality of behavior that you implement.” 
This finding supports the move to action, as a result of this awareness and analysis skills,
 resources, skills, talents we have, we are more likely to want to act, including outside our comfort zone.

the 10 questions to improve time management 4 37

How do I know how much get benefit from my time ? How do know wasteful factors for my time ?
Require to know how you benefit of time and factors which wasteful my time , that is doing a daily log for a week, for example, and record of work that I spent time details , as well as how much take all the work out time , recorded even simple things and small , and that might slip your time minutes a day but at the end of the week you may find these minutes turned to hours .

Design a detailed schedule for each day,and dividing to the number of hours of your day, almost 16 hours on the assumption that sleep takes 8 hours, and divide each hour into 4 sections or 15 minutes,

and the division of hours to work and the amount of time wasted each work . This proposal for a table, it is important to make clear to you the agenda and the amount of time wasted each work . After that analyze the table and Look at the factors waste of time and remove them , and ask yourself , is there an opportunity to organize time better? If yes – which is always the case – you should be looking for this opportunity.

the Important questions to time management

1 – I’m busy I do not have time to organize!

Rumored that lumberjack was diligent in cutting a tree in the woods but the ax was not one because he did not sharpen before , it passed someone saw him, On that case he said to him: “Why do not sharpen ax?”
lumberjack said he engaged in his work: “Don’t you see I’m busy in my work? Who says he is busy I have no time to organize his time, this would such as woodcutter in the story ,the sharpened ax helps to cut the tree quickly and also it helps to make less effort to cut the tree , as well as allow him to move to another tree , as well as time management, it helps you to complete your work faster and less effort and it allows you to seize the opportunities were not think of because you’re busy with your work.
This simple equation , verily we have to prepare the ground before planting , and  we have to prepare the ground before planting and as well as the time, we must plan for how to spend the hours of the day.

Red :  How to improving your communication skill

2 – I do not need time to organize everything, only large-scale projects need to organize !

In many statistics, we find that many things wasted hours a year ,if we say that you spent 10 minutes on your way from home to work , as well as from work to home , That is , you spent 20 minutes a day traveling between home and the workplace , assume that the number of working days per week, 5 days per week .

5 days × 20 minutes = 100 minutes a week

100 minutes per week  × 53 per week = 5300 minutes = 88 nearly an hour !!

If the exploit these ten minutes a day benefit from 88-hour you think they are lost or wasted time, how to use these ten minutes? You can listen to educational tapes ,or organize your time according to your priorities  planned before , or make this time a resource for creative ideas renewable .

3 – I would like to organize my time, but others do not allow me to do

Easy to blame others or circumstances , but you are solely responsible for the time , you who allow others to make you a tool to end their business , apologize to others tactfully and packages, and you start to organize your time according to your priorities and you’ll find remarkable outcome . If you do not plan for yourself and design goals for yourself and organize your time so , others do this in order to finish their business !! Ie become a tool in their hands .

4 – I will not lose my time organizing automatically and spontaneity and became as the machine?

No, never, the issue, is not seen her such ,  Time management does not mean machine for execution business planned only , the time management must be flexible so as not to become as the machine , things come to us and things we did not expect ,here we have to think about it , is that the most important planned or this is the recently occurred ? The answer to this question vary from the importance of what planned.

5 – Is not writing goals and planning a waste of time?

Suppose that you’re going to trip takes days, what would you do? The natural thing is to plan your journey and equipped with gadgets and clothes and maybe some books and entertainment tools well before the time of the flight , and the journey of life, but a long journey you need us to plan and prepare to face constant obstacles and achievements.
But I know that every hour you spend in planning will save you between two hours to four hours from the time of execution , What do you think ? Imagine planning every day for an hour and savings Proceeds from this time equal to two hours that is, you get 730 hours a year, equivalent to 30 days (one month) in the year you can exploit it for other things for example entertainment or family interest or self-development and the like.

6 – Lose Leisure and recreation times if organized my time!

This idea of error for organizing time and unfortunately many people believe in this idea. The time management usually linked to the same person is the one who determines the times  seriously and times entertainment and recreation , and regulation only aims to achieve the best achievements to ease the pressure on the shoulders of the person, as well as allow him time to develop themselves and learn and practicing his hobby. Time management does not mean the full seriousness is the only organization in the mean everything, even the entertainment becomes organized and directed also.

7 – I can not continue in the organization for circumstances pass by me, what should I do?

Never worry this is normal, for example,  the pregnant woman or who gave birth to a child, it should bother her child for two years or more , and on throughout the day, so how can regulate the time? It has to forget the copybooks and tables and put only one table even care about the little children, dates of  visit  the hospital, for example, as well as determine for themselves reading books in her spare time for child-rearing, for example, this simple example.

8 – In the holidays, for example, do you need to regulate the time, or to take advantage of the time?

There is a big difference, of course, I need to take advantage of the vacuum in the holiday time in favor of the development of my skills and my knowledge or even entertainment for myself, and this may not need to scheduling and organization, so do not worry if you passed your circumstances force you to disorganization .

9 –My life a series of successive crises, how do I organize my time ?!

Time management helps to alleviate this crisis and on top of that will help you prepare for and anticipate crises and Less so confined in a tight corner, we do not say that time management will end all crises, but will help to shrink dramatically .

10 – Is there one method that works for all people in the organization of the time?

There is no one method that works for all people, if every member of the human beings has its own circumstances and characteristics so it shall be responsible for himself and organize his time according to his needs is .

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